IV. Link state propagation

Link state information is propagated between routers within bulletin envelopes, which are sequences of packets containing partial or full copies of the sending node's link state table. Both point-to-point and broadcast procedures are provided.

IV.1. Optional multicast/broadcast

Packet radio is inherently a broadcast medium. Packet radio networks, however, do not necessarily offer a reliable broadcast service, even if they happen to use a broadcast physical medium. It is still possible to exploit the broadcast nature of the medium. RSPF link state propagation procedures allow but do not require such multicasting.
If the link uses connectionless procedures for user data packet exchange, then broadcast procedures should be used for link state packet exchange. The converse may not necessarily be true: The threshhold of loss that militates against connectionless transmission of user data may be more stringent than that which call for non-broadcast transmission of link state packets. Note that RSPF specifically permits its broadcast procedures to be used over subnetworks that do not have the reliability of true broadcast-topology subnetworks. This reduces the channel utilization on radio links.

IV.2. Routing update bulletins

Routing updates are passed along from router to router via routing update bulletins, which are broadcast within routing update envelopes. Bulletin propagation is designed to make it highly likely that every node within a given "horizon" eventually receives every routing update message sent out by a given node.

IV.2.1. Sequence numbers

Every router originates information about changes in its own adjacencies, as well as periodic retranmissions of its entire list of adjacencies. These bulletins are then propagated among other routers. The router whose adjacency information is being broadcast is called the _reporting router_; this may be some hops away from the routers which forward it to their own adjacencies. Each reporting router's bulletins (adjacency updates) contain sequence numbers (and in some cases, a subsequence number). These sequence and subsequence numbers are generated by the reporting router and propagated; they are not changed when a bulletin is relayed. They are incrememted by 1 every time a new one is generated.

IV.2.1.1. Restored sequence numbers

If RPSF is restarted, after having been run previously run (i.e., in the event of a system restart) before all knowledge of that router has timed out of the network, then sequence numbers beginning with 1 could cause the network to fail to converge, as these bulletins will always appear obsolete. A procedure is needed for routers to "catch up" with its previous sequence number if it is still in the network.
When a router first goes into service, its sequence number is initialized at 1 (or another low nonzero number). The router sends RRH before it sends its first bulletin. This enables it to first receive an update from its own adjacencies. Even if it sends a bulletin before receiving one from its adjacencies, sending a bulletin with a sequence number of 1 will prompt the adjacency to update it.
Whenever a router receives a bulletin, it examines the contents to see if its own router number is included as a reporting router. If so, then it resets its own sequence number to 1 greater than the sequence number received. This enables the router to resume its sequence number generation at a higher number than where it left off. A value of 0 is never used for reporting. However, a router shall respond to receipt of a bulletin with a sequence number of 0 with an update containing the current sequence number. (The 0 is thus reserved for use as a "poll".)

IV.2.1.2. Sequence number exhaust

Modular (circular) numbers are not used in RPSF Version 2.2. Thus a router may eventually exhaust its 16-bit number space, if it is in continuous operation long enough (nearly two years, given 15-minute updates). Should this occur, the router may reinitialize itself by halting all bulletin origination for a period long enough for the entire network to "forget" about that router's existence. Pending further study, a period of two hours is recommended for RSPF in a typical packet radio environment.

IV.2.2 Subsequence numbers

Bulletins may also carry change information incremental to previous bulletins. These carry the same sequence number as the full routing update bulletin to which they are reporting incremental changes; each such partial routing update bulletin has a subsequence number. The subsequence number is zero for a full routing update bulletin.

IV.2.3. Horizon

Every bulletin also has a horizon value, set by the reporting router, associated with each of its constituent links. (A given reporting router may have more than one constituent link, if it is a multi-port router.) Every time a bulletin is propagated, each horizon value is decremented by 1. When it hits zero, the bulletin is not propagated further. Note that for horizon purposes, a bulletin's individual constituent links may have separate horizons; when a link's horizon hits zero, other links' adjacency information from the same reporting router may continue to be propogated.
It should also be noted that if a given link has adjacencies with different horizons, these must be treated as separate links, since horizon is reported as a characteristic of a link. Such a circumstance may occur, for example, when a router serves a node group. Adjacencies within the node group are typically propagated with short horizons, since they are only of local interest (i.e., to other nodes in or near that node group). Similarly, the node group itself is propagated with a long horizon, across a backbone. However, adjacencies outside the node group may be propagated with long horizons, as they would not otherwise be reached across a backbone dependent upon node groups for long-haul routing.

IV.2.4 Routers table

Every router maintains within memory a routers table containing one tuple for every other router on the network, excepting those which are unseen because of a horizon. (An extreme case of this exception is an end node running RSPF with a horizon of 1, whose existence is only known to its own adjacencies.) This tuple contains the following elements:
This table is used to coordinate the receipt and transmission of bulletins, using either broadcast or non-broadcast procedures. If a router chooses to use multiple IP addresses (as is commonplace on the Internet where different interfaces may use different addresses), only one IP address is used by each router for propagating link state information. This is used as the router number.

IV.3. Flooding without congestion

A procedure is used to "flood" the network with link state information. This is designed to minimize the total amount of information transmitted, while maintaining an up-to-date data base on each router.

IV.3.1. Upon initialization of adjacencies

Bulletins are forwarded in a routing update envelope which may contain one or more reporting routers' bulletins (adjacency lists), which are flooded to the network. A bulletin envelope may actually concatenate multiple reporting routers' bulletins; this is in fact the typical case, when routing update packets are exchanged on schedule, and when a given router acquires a new adjacency. However, partial routing updates (good news and bad news) may be sent at any time.
The first time an adjacency is acquired, the two routers perform a full routing update with each other, exchanging their complete link lists. Once this is complete, the routers perform the SPF algorithm and compute new routing tables.

IV.3.2. Preventing loops and retransmissions

A bulletin from reporting router X (which lists all of X's adjacencies) is sent, initially by X, to every adjacent (to X) router A. This router A passes it along to all of its own adjacencies B, etc. This flooding is controlled such that no reporting router's adjacency update is sent more than once between the same pair of routers.
After router A sends its bulletin envelope to B, the recipient router B then looks at the sequence number of each reporting router X's adjacency bulletin within that envelope, and for each reporting router's bulletin, compares the sequence number of the just-received adjacency bulletin with the highest sequence number previously originated from X. If the just-received bulletin is newer (higher number), then it for further study: sends a positive acknowledgement to A, and joins in the flooding to its own adjacencies. The horizon is, of course, decremented.
If the bulletin from X has the same number as was stored in B, B checks the horizon left in the received bulletin against the horizon left when it previously received the bulletin. In the event that the latest bulletin received had a shorter (lower number) horizon left than the earlier one, it simply ignores [and acknowledges] the (redundant) message. But if the reporting router X's horizon left is greater for the new copy of the bulletin, router B propagates it as if it were a new bulletin. This way, if the bulletin happened to first arrive via a roundabout path, it won't accidentally fail to reach the intended end of its range. (Summary: Newer or longer-horizon bulletins are both passed along. Same age or older (by sequence number) or same or lower horizon will not be propagated.)
If any router B receives from router A a bulletin (from any reporting router X) that contains a lower sequence number than one that had previously arrived at B from said X, then it can be presumed that A has "obsolete" information. B replies by sending a bulletin to A with the latest link state information for that node X. As a corollary, a router may poll for information about a given reporting router by sending a routing update bulletin for that reporting router with a sequence number of 0. Said bulletin may contain zero links' information.

IV.4. Point-to-point bulletin envelope exchange

A router may acquire routing information from adjacent routers via point-to-point procedures which treat every adjacency as a separate logical data link. (Such a procedure also works, of course, over point-to-point links such as wirelines.) This tends to have the highest reliability, since connection-oriented data link control procedures can be used to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the data passed over the link. It has the disadvantage of requiring separate transmission of the same data to different adjacent nodes on the same radio channel.
Bulletin envelopes are thus exchanged (when connection-oriented is selected) periodically (based upon timers) and when new information is received (over a new adjacency, and when good and bad news arrive). Delivery of these bulletins is considered to be generally reliable.

IV.5. Broadcast bulletin propagation

When a router is adjacent to several other routers via the same broadcast (i.e., packet radio) channel, retransmission of routing bulletins to each adjacency makes additional use of bandwidth, which may be a scarce resource. A broadcast procedure may be used to pass the bulletin along that link. Note that broadcast propagation of bulletins may be combined with non-broadcast propagation, on a link by link basis. Although packet radio is a broadcast medium, it is not a perfect one: The reliability of multicast packets is not as high as for wireline LANs. This leads to the need for a unique broadcast "flooding" technique. Note that in a true broadcast-topology subnetwork, these procedures add little channel overhead, so these procedures are applicable there as well.

IV.5.1. AX.25 subnetworks

At this time, only the AX.25 subnetwork is widely used in AMPRnet while providing a multicast/broadcast service. Similar procedures may be adapted for use elsewhere.
A routing update bulletin is broadcast to the Layer 2 multicast AX.25 address using the IP multicast address. Individual recipient routers may or may not receive the entire bulletin, since there is no acknowledgement provided.
In the previously described case of a non-broadcast message sent via a connection-oriented datalink, the entire routing update bulletin can be assumed to have been received intact. Thus, if a given reporting router has originated a new complete list of its adjacencies (new sequence numbers, subsequence numbers are 0), then any adjacency not included is presumed to have ceased to exist. Such a presumption is not always possible when a bulletin was received via unacknowledged broadcast, as the message might have been received in part. This should not make the partially received bulletin unusable.
A bulletin envelope is transmitted in one or more packets, each of which constitutes a numbered fragment of the whole bulletin envelope. Within the transmitted bulletin envelope, each individual reporting router's bulletin begins with a node-header which contains the number of links being reported on. Within each bulletin, each link is identified by a link header, each of which specifies the number of adjacencies being reported on (for that link). Since each IP packet that makes up a bulletin contains a fragment number, it is also possible to determine whether or not a fragment was lost. Each packet also contains an envelope-ID, which prevents accidental mis-assembly of different bulletins that may arrive close in time.
In connection-oriented non-broadcast procedures, a routing update bulletin (not a partial one with a subsequence numbers >0) provides a complete list of adjacencies known to the sending node, except where the horizon is exceeded. Absence of a previouly-known adjacency then implies that the adjacency has been lost. However, that assumption does not apply to fragmented bulletins received in part, which can occur with broadcast procedures: If a fragment was lost before reaching the end of a given reporting router's bulletin within the bulletin envelope, then the absence of a previously-known adjacency in the received bulletin does not mean that the adjacency was lost.
RSPF procedures dictate that routing update bulletins with a subsequence number of zero are presumed to be complete lists of adjacencies from their originators; higher subsequence numbers represent incremental changes only. In the broadcast procedures, a routing update bulletin with a subsequence number of zero, if received only in part, is treated as a partial routing update bulletin. If it received in full, it is treated as a full routing update bulletin.
Thus, the recipient compares the sequence number with the previously received sequence number from that reporting router. If it is higher than the previously received one, then its adjacencies are used. If it was received in full, and had a subsequence number of 0, then its previous adjacencies are replaced (removed if not contained in the latest full routing update bulletin). If it was not received in full, or if its subsequence number was not zero, then its previous adjacencies are left intact unless explicitly changed by the received bulletin.
If a bulletin is received in full, then the routers table is updated with the latest sequence and/or subsequence number, horizon, and timestamp. If it is received in part, then these entries are not updated. After the bulletin has been completely transmitted, a recipient node which has received a partial update from a reporting node may poll for that node's latest information, by originating a bulletin naming the reporting router in question, specifying sequence number 0, with zero links for that reporting router. (This is the same polling procedure used for non-broadcast links.)
Note that if a fragment is lost, a reporting router whose node-header is in the lost fragment will of course remain unchanged in the recipient's data base. Furthermore, any data received in subsequent fragments, prior to a node-header, will also be meaningless. The last adjacency of the last link in a reporting router's bulletin will have the Last flag set to 1, signaling that following the address, a node header follows. Note also that the first node-header within an envelope is pointed to by the sync byte in the envelope header. The last flag and sync byte should match or an error should be noted.

IV.5.2. Reconstructing bulletins from multiple fragments

If the resent bulletin is the same one as previously received in part, and it too is received in part, then if all of the previously received fragments were stored, the receiving router may attempt to reconstruct the entire bulletin from the two (or more) fragmented transmissions. Once an entire bulletin has been reconstructed, the receiving router may treat this as a complete update. (This procedure is optional.)

IV.5.3. Non-broadcast unreliable subnets

If an adjacency is established across a general-topology subnet that does not offer reliable packet delivery (eg., TheNet packet level), then broadcast procedures should be used to exchange routing information across the subnet between the two adjacencies. If the entire bulletin is received intact, then it should be used; if it is received in part, the received portions may be used, and the recipient may poll for a retransmission as in IV.5.1 and IV.5.2 above.

IV.6. Routing update bulletin packets

A routing update bulletin envelope (Table IV.1) may contain several different reporting routers' updated link state information, concatenated into one message, with a different sequence number for each source (reporting router). One of the sources, of course, may be the local router. Each router's link state information is further broken down by link, which allows its backbone routing information to be propogated separately from its local end node adjacency information.

IV.6.1. Node group reduction of adjacency list

If an end node establishes a connection with a router whose node group default addresses (based on the significant bit count) already include that end station, no bulletin need mention that adjacency, as packets to that end station will already be routed correctly. Node groups are defined manually.

IV.6.2. Incremental changes (good news and bad news)

Bulletins that only report changes in state come in two flavors. Good news bulletins inform other routers that an adjacency has been noted. bad news bulletins inform them that an adjacency has been lost. Theoretically, a router could send out a new full routing update bulletin every time it gained or lost an adjacency. However, the use of shorter good news and bad news packets, which do not contain a full routing update, allow the network to remain relatively current with less transmitted traffic.
Good news and bad news packets are propogated like other packets, but are not originated by the same rules. While full routing bulletins are originated based upon a timer (rspftimer), good news packets are transmitted immediately upon receipt and initiated immediately after an adjacency is initialized. This enables new links to be useful quickly. Bad news, however, should not travel as fast: A node should cache any bad news message for a time (recommendation for this timer: rspftimer/16) while waiting for the link to come back up. This helps keep the network stable; if the node receives a packet destined for the lost destination, it may send an ICMP "host unreachable" message to the originator of the packet, unless it can reroute the packet itself (as may happen with the loss of a backbone link when others still exist).
Because good news and bad news messages represent changes to the last full link state bulletin propogated, but do not purport to completely represent a node's link states, they carry bulletin subsequence numbers. These use the last bulletin sequence number originated by the reporting router, but the sub-sequence value increments from 1. (A full link state packet has a sub-sequence value of 0, and resets the subsequence counter.)

IV.6.3. Routes to nearby destinations

Sometimes more than one router will serve the same area (determined by the significant bits' matching), and they will need to know which one has the better path to a given station. These adjacency messages may only require a short horizon, as will good news and bad news packets which refer to end nodes going on and off the air. Higher horizons are needed for backbone routers.
This distinction allows routers to define their service area and role within a network by appropriate horizon adjustment. A router that only uses short horizons may be useful for providing connectivity within a constrained geographic area, typically encompassing one or a small number of node groups, in which not all end users have full connectivity to a single router. Such a router will set its horizon_link, reporting on other routers, to a low value. A router that serves as a backbone node, propagating node groups across a wider horizon, will have a high horizon_group, reporting node groups, value. (Horizon_link and horizon_group values are usually set the same. Horizon_portable is usually set to the same value as horizon_group and horizon_link; horizon_local is set to a low value, so that even a backbone router will not propagate intra-node group information across the backbone.)

Table IV.1. Routing update (link state packet) bulletin envelope:
				  1	 	  2
 |0              |8              |6              |4              |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ----
 | RSPF Version #| Type          | fragment #    | fragment total|
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -hdr
 |       Checksum                | sync byte     | # nodes below |
 |  Envelope-ID                  |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ----
 |         Reporting node #1 full IP Router-Address              | node
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ -hdr
 |  Node 1 bulletin  sequence #  | sub-sequence #| # links       |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ----
 | horizon left   |  ERP factor  |  link cost    |  #adjacencies | link
 |significant bits|
 |              Adjacent node(s) 1,1,1 IP address                | adj.
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 1,1,2 IP address                 | adj.
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
                       . . .
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 1,1,n IP address                 |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 | horizon left   |  ERP factor  |  link cost    |  #adjacencies | link
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 1,2,1 IP address                 | adj.
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
                        . . .
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 1,2,n IP address                 | adj.
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 |         Reporting node #2 full IP Address                     | node
 |  Node 2 bulletin sequence #   | sub-sequence #|  # links      |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 | horizon left  |  ERP factor   |  link cost    |  #adjacencies | link
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 |significant bits|
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ adj.
 |             Adjacent node(s) 2,1,1 IP address                 |
 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ ---
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 2,1,2 IP address                 |
                       . . .
 | horizon left    |  ERP factor |  link cost    |  #adjacencies |
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 2,2,1 IP address                 |
                        . . .
 |significant bits|
 |             Adjacent node(s) 2,2,n IP address                 |
                        . . .
 |         Reporting node #n full IP address                     |
 |  Node n bulletin sequence #   | sub-sequence #|   # links     |

An RSPF bulletin packet is sent within IP with a type of >tbd - use 73 until an official value is assigned<. Each routing update envelope contains an envelope packet header that contains:
RSPF Version Number
Version number of the protocol (22).
(Value 1 for Routing Update Bulletin Envelope)
Fragment Number
States which fragment, in a segmented message, this is, beginning at 1. Non-fragmented messages use 1.
Fragment total
Total number of fragments in message; 1 if not fragmented.
IP-style checksum.
Sync byte
Which octet in this packet (counting from this byte as byte 0) is the beginning of the first node-header. If 0, this fragment has no node-header. Non-fragmented messages use a value of 4 (because 3 bytes follow in packet header).
Number of nodes reporting
The number of reporting routers in the messages that follows (this packet or a sequence of packets forming the envelope).
The node-header (for each reporting router) contains 8 octets:
Reporting router #n full IP router address:
The IP address of the router whose adjacencies are being reported below. (Note that if a router uses separate IP addresses on its links, it should still adopt a single one as its router address.)
Bulletin sequence number
When a bulletin is passed along, this number is NOT changed; every new bulletin from a given Reporting router has a value 1 higher than the previous bulletin from that reporting router.
Sub-sequence number
Good news and bad news packets representing incremental changes from the last full report increment this value by 1; it is 0 for full bulletins.
The number of different cost-horizon values (typically, but not necessarily, representing different types of link in a mulitiport gateway) being reported below; the following four octets are the header for each link.

[For each reporting router, adjacencies are reported separately by link cost. This is the received cost value for that data link, after any adjustment that may be based upon packet loss ratio. Adjacencies are also reported separately by horizon, even if the cost is the same. It does not matter at this point if there are multiple RF or other links if their cost and horizon are the same. Likewise, separate received costs or horizons on one link will be treated separately and such adjacencies will be grouped under separate link headers:]

Horizon left
This number is decremented every time a routing update bulletin is passed along; when it reaches 0, it is not passed further.
Link cost
A "figure of merit" for each link, rising with slower/poorer links. This is the number whose total is minimized by SPF. The range is 1-127. As a starting point, a 56000 bps fdx backbone link might have a value of 2, a 4800bps hdx link a value of 5, a 1200bps hdx link a value of 10 and a 300 bps hf "wormhole" a value of 20. An Ethernet or high-speed (1 Mbps+) link might then have a value of 1. A value of 255 denotes the loss of a link; this is found in Bad News packets. These values should be coordinated network-wide; adjusting them will change the way packets are routed by RSPF.
Number of adjacencies
The number of adjacencies to be listed for that reporting node.
ERP Factor
Used for "approximating" a route; contains the number of significant bits for which a given node can be presumed to be a valid router, even if it doesn't report in detail. A low factor = wider coverage area; thus ERP of 16 means that if NO other match is found for a given address, this router will try to handle it if it matches 16 bits. Basically a handle for future enhancements; its use will not be required in this release of RSPF.
For each adjacency of the given link cost, the following is provided:
Significant bits
The number of bits used for node group routing purposes. Usually 32 but may be lower if a given link purports to serve all end nodes in an area defined using the most-matched-bits node group convention. Higher numbers of bits matched take a higher priority than least cost. This uses the low-order 5 bits of the octet.
If this is the last adjacency in the list for this reporting router, this value is 1; otherwise it is 0. (This occupies the high-order bit of the significant bits octet.)
Full IP address
The full IP address for this node.
Note that the n,n,n vector within the bulletin has three fields in the above representation: Reporting router within bulletin envelope, link cost/horizon within reporting router's bulletin, and reporting adjacency with that link cost/horizon.

IV.7. Fragmentation

In a moderate to large network, a full routing update can easily exceed the maximum size of an AX.25 frame or IP packet. The RSPF Routing Update message, however, may be sent in fragments. The IP fragmentation function is not used for this; bulletins are not assumed to be terminated by a packet boundary. Each fragment is, however, numbered in the packet header, along with an indication of the number of the total number of fragments in that envelope.
In order to permit parsing of the incoming fragments by routers who are using unacknowledged broadcast information (with the high likelihood of lost fragments), every bulletin's packet header contains a sync byte indicator. This indicates which byte, where the next byte in the header is byte 1, is the beginning of a node header. If a previous fragment was lost, the receiver should ignore the number of bytes indicated in the sync byte before resuming parsing of the packet. (If the fragment does not exceed 255 bytes, this will always be sufficient. It is recognized that long packets may not be able to use this mechanism reliably, and a value of "0" should be used to indicate that no sync is possible within this fragment.)
Each routing update bulletin envelope takes the form of a three- dimensional list, with the dimensions being reporting router, link and adjacency. A given bulletin envelope may report on link state from one or more remote nodes, as well as from the sending node. Each node may have one or more links; each link may have one or more adjacencies.
Packets may not be fragmented within adjacencies, but may be fragmented after an adjacency's address and before the next adjacency's significant bits field. (This presents a 5-octet field that should not be fragmented.) The next fragment, in a new packet, simply begins where the last one left off; the receiver knows how much more to expect based upon the node and link count in the respective node-header and link-header.
A router may not start sending a new Routing Update message of any kind to any given IP address until all fragments of a previous message to that address have been transmitted. This applies both to point to point (non-multicast address) and multicast procedures.

IV.8. Bulletin Timers

The timers used for bulletin updates must be a compromise between maintaing the network's current state and the traffic required to do so. An initial suggestion: Good news messages should be initiated within a few seconds and bad news should wait at least rspftimer/16, with relatively short horizons on the bulletins (i.e., the routers within the region). Full routing updates with normal horizons should be sent out every rspftimer interval (typically 30 minutes). If the network is small, more frequent updates may be possible; too frequent updates risk choking the network with update traffic.

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Last Modified: Wed, 22 Nov 2000
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